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Higher Secondary Education - For all addresses: sorting and experimental

Take the test, choosing one of the four types proposed here

Dante Alighieri, Comedy, Paradiso, XVII, vv.106-142 (national edition, 1967).
The ancestor Cacciaguida indicates to Dante the duty to proclaim the truths, which are also uncomfortable.
In the passage Dante speaks first, Cacciaguida replies.


«Well, my father, yes, how he spurs


the time towards me, I hit myself


such, that it is more serious those who abandon themselves more;

the more you break down


why is it good that I love myself,

for what


so that if it is much more expensive on site,


I did not lose others for my poems.

other places of refuge because of my verses


Down to the bitter sanzafine world,


and for the mount of the cuibel cacume

from whose beautiful peak


the eyes of my woman levaro,

they raised me up to here


and afterwards through heaven, dilute in light,


I learned what I laugh,


to many tasty citrus fruits;

it will have a sour taste


and I am to the true sumptuous friend,

and on the other hand


I'm afraid I will lose my life

not to live in memory


that this time will call ancient ".

of posterity


The light in which my darling laughed


that I found there, she fuses before Corus,


as a ray of gold mirror;


then he replied: "Coscïenzafusca

Who has a dirty conscience


or their own or others' shame


while he will hear your word abrupt.


But nondimen, removed lie,


all your famous face;


and leave the scab there.


For if your voice will be harassing


in the first taste, vitalnodrimento


she will then leave when she isdigested.


This cry of yours will make the wind


that the highest heavier peaks;


and this is not an honorable argument.

it is not a small reason dionore


But they have shown you these broken things,

So ... in these rotating circles


in the mountain and the valledolorosa


even the souls that are defaming notes,



that the soul of that ode does not pose

because the soul of chiti listens


nor does it hold faith for ever that threshing floor

if you use examples


its unknown unknown root,

of unknown origin eoscuri


nor for any other subject that does not appear. "

or little obvious topics

Continuing his journey in Paradise, Dante, led by Beatrice, arrived (canto XIV) in the sky of Mars, in which are gathered the souls of those who fought for the faith: here he meets (canto XV) the soul of his ancestor Cacciaguida . He greets his descendant congrande affection and at first (canto XVI) describes to him the life, in his opinion peaceful and honest, of the Florence of his time. Then Cacciaguida dwells (canto XVII) on the fate that awaits Dante: political condemnation and exile.The poet shows himself (verses 106-120) troubled and hesitant: he fears having to suffer persecution even in exile, but on the other hand aspires to be remembered by posterity as a truthful and forthright man. The dialogue continues with Cacciaguida's reply.

1. Understanding of the text
Paraphrase in your own words the entire Dante text, inserting the explanations that are given in the margin in italics. (To understand some ancient words, consult a dictionary). Based on this understanding of the text, then proceed to the analysis of its characters by answering the following questions.
2. Analysis of the text
2.1 In which verses to his ancestor does Dante show greater signs of weakness? Individual and comment on them.
2.2 In which verses does Dante refer to the stages of his journey? How does that describe the three "kingdoms" of the underworld? Further on, also Cacciaguida recalls those three environments: in what order do you name them? Compare them two sets of terms and their order, which gives meaning to the different position of the two characters.
2.3 When alluding to the criticisms and accusations that his verses launch against the powerful, Dante uses a rich series of figurative terms: individual and commentary.
2.4 What terms does Dante use to indicate the blessed soul of his ancestor and describe his attitude? In the previous songs, in which the meeting takes place, Dante speaks of a cross made of many bright points of continuous movement.
2.5 Words put at the end of verse and rhymes acquire greater strength. Which of these words seem most meaningful to you?
2.6 Can you describe the metric structure of Dante's triplets?
3. Insights
Dante declares, in verses 118-120, that he is very keen to acquire fame among hyposteri. The poet may seem vain, but in reality he wants to emphasize the importance that must always be given to those who seek to unveil the damn world, even taking personal risks. Develop the topic and also erichia other cases known to you, writers or artists or thinkers or others, who in your opinion have made, with full awareness, this gift to other men. It illustrates in particular the function that Dante had for the political, cultural and linguistic conscience of the Italians and for the individual moral awareness of his readers.

(you can choose one of the topics related to the four areas proposed)

It develops the chosen topic either in the form of a "short essay" or a "newspaper article", using the documents and data that accompany it.
If you choose the form of the "short essay", interpret and compare the documents and the data provided and on this basis carry out your argument, arguing it, also with appropriate references to your knowledge and study experience.
Give the essay a title consistent with your treatment and hypothesize an editorial destination (specialist magazine, school dossier for research and documentation, review of a cultural topic, other).
If you believe, organize the discussion by dividing it into paragraphs to which you could possibly fear a specific title.
If you choose the form of the "newspaper article", identify in the documents in the data provided one or more elements that seem relevant to you and build your "piece" on them.
It gives the article an appropriate title and indicates the type of newspaper on which it is supposed to be published (newspaper, popular magazine, school journal, other).
To update the topic, you can refer to imaginary oreal circumstances (exhibitions, anniversaries, conferences or major events).
For both forms of writing do not exceed four or five columns of protocol sheet half.

TOPIC: The aspiration to freedom in tradition and in the artistic-literary imagination.


Sweet consort, he replied
everything you said to me even though
ange the pensier; but de Troiani I fear
strongly contempt, and alter
Trojan women, if cowardly warrior
I kept myself apart, and the fist
I avoided the trials. Ah nol allows,
no, this cor. I have long learned

Or do you like to welcome her coming:
freedom is seeking, which is so dear,
how do you know who life refuses for you.
You know that it was not bitter for her
in Utica death, where you left
the dress of the great day will be so clear.

DANTE ALIGHIERI, Purgatory, I, vv. 70-75

to be strong, and to volartra first
in bitter conflicts to protect
of paternal glory and mine.
Day will come, I presage the heart mel says,
the day will come that the sacred iliac wall
and Priam and all his people fall.
But neither de Teucri the Rio Dolor, nor that
of Hecuba herself, nor of the ancient father,
nor de fratei, who are many and brave
under the enemy iron in the dust
they will lie down, don't mind me, woman,
yes of these the pain, as the cruel
your destiny, […]
But before the earth covers me,
I mean you, pious lai slave.

HOMERUS, Iliad, book VI

1. - [...] And if, as I said, it was necessary, wanting to see the virtue of Moisè, that the people of Israel were in Egypt, and to know the greatness of the soul of Cyrus, that Lost were oppressed by Medi and the excellence of Theseus, that the Athenians were dispersed; so to the present, wanting to know the virtue of an Italian spirit, it was necessary for Italy to be reduced to the term which is present, and for it to be more than the Jews, more servant than Persi, more dispersed than the Athenians, without chief, without order; , stripped, tattered, running, and I had endured dogni sorteruina.
2. - […] So that, left without life, he expects what could be his wounds, and put an end to bags of Lombardy, the sizes of the Realm and of Tuscany, and heals her of those wounds for a long time infistolite. See how God begs you to send someone to redeem you from these cruelties and insolences. We still saw ourselves all ready and willing to follow a flag, provided there is one who takes it.

N. MACHIAVELLI, The Prince, Chapter XXVI, 1532

Or foreigners, in their own heritage
Italy returns, and its soil resumes;
or strangers, tear the curtains
from a land that there is no mother.
Do not you see that everything is shaken
from Cenisio to the cliff of Scilla?
Don't feel that treacherous waver
under the weight of barbarians feet?

O strangers! On your banners
it is the lobbies of a betrayed swear;
a judgment you uttered
vaccompagna with liniqua tenzon;
you who flocked in those days:
God rejects the foreign force;

let all people be free, and pèra
of the sword liniqua reason.

If the land where oppressed you moaned
presses the bodies of your oppressors,
if you are right-handed gentlemen
it seemed so bitter to you in those days;
who said that sterile, eternal
will the mourning of these people?
Who said that to our complaints
will that God who deaf be deaf?

A. MANZONI, March 1821, vv. 41-64, 1848

«They unrolled a three-color handkerchief from the bell tower, rang the bells in a flock, and began to shout in the square: - Long live freedom! -
Like the stormy sea. The crowd foamed and swayed in front of the gentlemen's house, in front of the Town Hall, on the steps of the church: a sea of ​​white diberrette; the shimmering axes and scythe. Then he broke into a mold.
-First to you, Baron! that you have made people hide from your farmers! –In front of all the others a witch, with old hair bristling on her head, armed only with her nails. - To you, priest of the devil! that you sucked our soul! - To you, rich epulone, that you can't even run away, so much seigrasso of the poor man's blood! - To you, cop! that you only executed for those who had nothing! To you, forester! that you sold the meat and meat of the neighbor for two tarì a day! -
And the blood that smoked and drunk. Sickles, hands, rags, stones, all red with blood! - To gentlemen! To hats! Kill! Kill it on your hats - […]
And as the shadow slowly dwindled on the churchyard, the crowd flared in one song. Between two small houses in the square, at the bottom of a small road that descended precipitously, you could see the yellowish fields in the plain, the dark woods on the sides of Etna. Now they had to share these woods and those fields. Each one of them calculated with his fingers what he would have touched on his part, and glared at the neighbor. - Freedom meant that there had to be for everyone! »
G. VERGA, La Libertà, from "Novelle rusticane", 1883

On the schoolboy notebooks
On my benches and trees
On the sand on the snow
I write your name

On every page I read
On every page that's blank
Blood stone paper or ash
I write your name

On the golden images
On the weapons of the warriors
Upon the crown of kings
I write your name [...]

And by virtue of a word
I start my life again
I was born to meet you
To call you


P. ELUARD, Liberté, 1942, trad. F. Fortini

And how could we sing
with the foreign foot over the heart,
among the dead abandoned in the squares,
on the hard grass of ice, at the lament
lamb of the children, black allurlo
of the mother who went to meet her son
crucified on the telegraph pole?
To the branches of the willows, by vote,
even our lyres were hanging,
they swayed slightly in the sad wind

S. QUASIMODO, from Day after day, 1947

«I am happy to join you in this which will pass to history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our country. One hundred years ago a great American, in whose shadow we stand today, signed the Proclamation on Emancipation. This fundamental decreed as a great beacon of hope for millions of black slaves who had been burned on the fire of greedy injustice. He came as an albaradiosa to end the long night of captivity. [...]
We try not to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking with a cup of hatred and resentment. We will forever have to conduct our high alpine struggle for dignity and discipline. We should not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. We will have to continually rise to the majestic heights of those who respond to physical strength with the force of their soul.
This wonderful new militancy that has affected the black community will not lead us to a lack of trust in the whole white community, because many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to understand that their destiny is linked with our destiny, and have come to understand that their freedom is inextricably linked to our freedom ".
Martin Luther KING, from I have a dream, 1965

It is one of the artist's best known works. The freedom that guides the people stems from the revolutionary movements of July 1830, which overthrew the reign of Charles X in just three days.
The canvas is dominated by the overwhelming impetus of the people advancing and that no reactionary force will be able to arrest. This is a square in which liberal lideology of romantic young people is clearly represented.

E. DELACROIX The freedom that guides the people. July 28, 1830 (sutela oil, Paris, Louvre)

TOPIC: The journey: experience of the other, inner formation, fun and digression, in a word, a metaphor for life.

"Happiness, which the reader knows, has many faces. Traveling is probably one of them. Entrust the flowers to those who know how to look after them, and begin. Or start again. No trip is definitive ».
J. SARAMAGO, Journey to Portugal, Turin, 1999

«What is not a journey? For as little as a figurative extension to this term - and one has never refrained from doing it - the journey coincides with life, no more or less: is it perhaps something other than a passage from birth to death? Moving in space is the first sign ... The journey into space symbolizes the passage of time, the physical movement, in turn, the inner change; everything is travel ».
T. TODOROV, The morals of history, Turin, 1995

«Today more than ever living means traveling; the spiritual condition of man as a traveler, of which theology speaks, is also a concrete situation for ever larger masses of people. In the dizzying transformations of living, the return - material and sentimental - to oneself appears ever more uncertain; Today's Ulysses does not resemble the Homeric or Joyciano, who eventually returns home, but rather the Dante's one that is lost in the limitless ».
C. MAGRIS, Among the Chinese who dream of Ulysses, CORRIERE DELLA SERA, 12/12/2003

«The child who will love to travel begins at six years looking at the world maps and maps. Kneeling in his room, indifferent to any call from his mother and father, he marks with his finger the long road that leads him by sea and land from Rome to Beijing, from Moscow to Cape Town, along the comings and goings of the continents and the dark blue and clear of the oceans. Browse the cards: fall in love with the name of Bogotào di Valparaiso, imagine violating tropical and desert forests, climbing Everest and Kilimangiàro, like the heroes of his adventure books, so the infinite of the world becomes familiar and within reach of hand ... The boy learns that when we travel, we always make two trips. In the first, the most fantastic, he reads the guide of Austria or Sweden or Ireland: cities, rivers, plains, forests, works of art, historical and economic news. And study the future journey. Nothing is more fun than planning it: because the boy changes the guide's itineraries, establishes new relationships, chases unknown places, arrives in Austria from Bavaria or Bohemia, avoids cities or regions that he does not love, establishes the duration of the courses, distinguishes mornings, afternoons and evenings. The hours are full of things: in a square in Vienna he will stop, who knows why, four hours. Time is governed by a joyful pedantry. When the journey begins, the boy realizes that reality has nothing or little to do with his fantastic plans. The country that imagined yellow is green: what he thought red is heavenly. The two journeys, the fantastic one and the real one, the one of the guides and that of the world, now agree, now they fight ».
P. CITATI, The Guides of Wonders, THE REPUBLIC, 28/12/2004

"Ultimately, what way of traveling is this? Take a tour of this city of Miranda do Douro, this Cathedral, this sacristan, this top hat and this sheep, then mark a cross on the map, get back on the road and say, like the barber while wearing a towel: "Forward another". Traveling should be completely different, stop longer and turn less, perhaps the profession of the traveler should even be established, only for those with such a vocation, those who believe it would be a job of little responsibility are far wrong, every kilometer is not it is worth less than a year of life. Grappling with this philosophy, the traveler ends up falling asleep, and when in the morning he wakes up, here is the yellow stone in front of his eyes, it is the fate of the stones, always in the same place, unless the painter comes and brings them to your heart » .
J. SARAMAGO, Journey to Portugal, Turin, 1999

"The traveler had a favorable prejudice towards the peoples of distant lands and tried to describe them to his compatriots; ... now modern man is pressed. The tourist will then make another choice: things, and no longer human beings, will be the object of his predilection: landscapes, monuments, ruins ... The tourist is a hasty visitor ... not only because modern man in general is, but also because the visit is part of his holidays and not of his professional life; his movements abroad are limited within his paid holidays. The speed of travel is already a reason for his preference for the animator over the soul: knowledge of human customs, said Chateaubriand, takes time. But there is another reason for this choice: the absence of encounters with different subjects is very restful, since it never indiscusses our identity; it is less dangerous to observe camels than men ».
T. TODOROV, We and the others, "L’Esotico", Turin, 1991, passim

"I was in Volgograd ... I was in Benares ... I was in Ketchum ... I was in JàsnajaPoljana ... I was in Cologne ... I was on Ortigara ... All physical movements, if the intelligence wants and the heart grants it, can resemble splendid magnetic crossings. Crossing the space excites time. Could it be that, when I leave, I always try to find the reasons for the return first? The travels of the twentieth century were not like that! Many of those who were firing would have wished to get lost in a fantastic elsewhere capable of reducing, at little price and without too much inconvenience, who knows what sensational discoveries and bright intoxications ... In class we have a beautiful geographical map. Many of my students, Slavs, Arabs, Africans and Asians, they can be considered expert travelers. They ate the dust of the deserts, the tar of the highways. They know the peeling paint of the customs bars, the somnipers with their heads resting on the bus window, the wrinkled documents in their hands ... Now they are the ones to explain to me, with patience and foresight, letting the finger slide on the map, the crumbling peripheral Addis Ababa, the rainforest not far from Lagos, the floating markets of Dhaka, the emporiums of Herat, the feasts of Rabat, the basements of Bucharest. And I really go with them, without paying the ticket, around the world in the classroom ».
E. AFFINATI, Traveling with the heart, CORRIERE DELLA SERA, 4/2/2005

«One would always like to be: to have been, never. And it is repugnant to us that we cannot live in two places at the same time, when both of them live in our thoughts, indeed in our nervous system: in our body ... We can indeed travel. But while the goal is approaching and becomes real, the place of departure moves away and replaces the lameta in the unreality of memories; we earn one, and we lose the other. Distance is within us, a true human condition ... Over there we dreamed of the homeland, as from the homeland we dream of abroad. But the first great journey leaves young people, of any stature and sensitivity, a disagreement that habits cannot compose; specifies the idea of ​​the oceans, ports, detachments; it almost creates, in the mind, a new form, a new category: the category of distance; the consideration, by now, of all the distant lands. Maybe it's a vice. Those who have been to China would like to experience Argentina, the Transvaal, Alaska. Those who have been to Mexico are also moved when hearing about India, Australia and China. These names, once more colorful and melancholic geographies, are now possible, real, fascinating. Those who have tried the distance hardly lose their taste. The first trip, the first evening that the novo-peregrin is on its way, lanostalgia is born, forever. And it is the desire to return not only to the homeland, but everywhere: where we have been and where we have not been. Two great directions alternate: towards home, towards the outside ... Perhaps they do not understand their country without those who have not abandoned it at least once, and believing it was forever ".
M. SOLDATI, America first love, "Lontananza", 1935

TOPIC: Collapse of nationalistic regimes, "cold war" and economic reasons at the beginning of the European integration process.

«It was very strong everywhere [in the second half of the 1940s. XX] the repulsion against nationalism - its own no less than that of the others - which had caused so many evils ... Europeanist statements, more or less precise, appeared therefore with increasing frequency in the programmatic declarations of many parties and governments. However, this diffusion was not equal in all countries and parties in Western Europe. It had more favorable ground in the nations that had the experience of the total humiliation of their states, and which necessarily placed much less trust in the restoration of traditional national sovereignties. Europeanism spread with relative ease, as one may well understand, in Germany and Italy, which had reaped very bitter fruits from their unbridled nationalism, as well as in Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg, which had ascertained the null value of the sovereignty of their small countries ... on the part of the head of the liberation, the French political forces took over the direction of the Fourth Republic oriented themselves very pro-European foreign policy, seeing in it the only possibility to release future relations on new bases, especially with Germany ".
A. SPINELLI, Europeanism, in "Encyclopedia of the Twentieth Century", vol. II, Rome, 1977

"For Americans, however, an effectively rebuilt Europe, part of the anti-Soviet military alliance that constituted the illogical complement to the Marshall Plan - the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established in 1949 - was to realistically be based on a strong German economy and on the rearmament of Germany. . The best that the French could do was to intertwine the French and German-West interests so tightly that it made it impossible for a new conflict to arise between the two old opponents. The French therefore proposed their own version of the European Union in the form of the European Community of Carbon and Steel (1950), which developed into the European Economic Community or European Common Market (1957), later simply designated as the European Community and, since 1993, as European Union. Its quarterfinals were in Brussels, but its real core was in the Franco-German unity. "
E.J. HOBSBAWM, The short century, Milan, Rizzoli, 1994

«In this climate, the text of the treaty establishing the“ European Coal and Steel Community ”was approved on 18 April 1951, which, after the completion of the ratification processes, entered into force on 25 July 1952, with the immediate appointment of Jean Monnet as President. of the ECSC High Authority itself ... In fact, the treaty explicitly represented the first step towards overcoming the historical value that had always divided Europe ... Europe had paid for its international downgrading and self-destruction. ancient dominance of power politics. Even without wanting to say that power politics ceased by virtue of rules written in a treaty, it is important to note that this treaty incorporated a common feeling, according to which nothing could justify the sacrifices of new wars and everything had to be channeled within the context of the negotiations: within institutions outside of them but always in a peaceful way. The pacification between Germany and France through the ECSC Treaty was a first sign, thanks to which it became possible to say that relations between the two countries would no longer become a threat to European peace ".
E. DI NOLFO, History of international relations (1918-1992), Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1994

"The tension caused by the blockade of Berlin in 1948, by the creation of the two Germanies, by the heavy limitations on German industrial activity imposed by the Allied Control Council was high. Relegating the German economy to a position of inferiority that did not seem realistic since, since then , the need to associate Germany with the defense of the West was beginning to be felt ... Steel and carbon then constituted the basis of economic power ».
B. CEPPETELLI CAPRINI, The Coal and Steel Community, in "History of European Integration", vol. I, Marzorati, Milan, 1997

TOPIC: Natural catastrophes: the science of man facing the imponderable nature!

DOCUMENTS «Nature! We are surrounded and wrapped in it - unable to get out of it, unable to penetrate deeper into her. Unsolicited, and without warning, she grabs the whirlwind of her dance and drags us along, until, tired, we untie ourselves from her arms. Create eternally new forms; what has never been; what was once does not return - everything is new, yet simple. We live among her, and we are foreigners. It speaks continuously with us, and does not betray its secret to us. We act continuously on her, and we have no power over her. It seems to have focused entirely on individuality, but does not know what to do with individuals. It always builds and always destroys: its forge is inaccessible ... The drama it plays is always new, because it always creates new spectators. Life is its most beautiful discovery, death, its stratagem to obtain a lot of life ... Its laws are obeyed even when we oppose it; we collaborate with her even when we pretend to work against her ... She knows neither past nor future; its eternity is the present ... No explanation is torn from it, no benefit is gained from it, which does not spontaneously ... It is a whole; but it is never accomplished. As it does today, it can always do ».
J. W. GOETHE, Fragment on nature, 1792 or 1793

«Many are and in many ways have happened and will happen the losses of men, the greatest by means of fire and water ... That story, that one day Phaeton, son of the Sun, after having yoked his father's cart, since he was able to guide him along his father's road, he burned everything that was on the earth and he too died electrocuted, it has the appearance of a fairy tale, but it is actually the deviation of the celestial bodies that go around the earth and that it determines in long intervals of time the destruction, by means of a great quantity of fire, first of all what is on earth ... When instead the gods, purifying glass with water, flood it, ... those who live in your cities are transported by rivers in the sea ... In the following time, major earthquakes and floods occurred, in the space of a day and a night-time ... the island of Atlantis absorbed by the sea disappeared; therefore still that sea is impractical and unexplored, being impeded by the large slums of mud that formed the island in sinking ".
PLATONE, Timaeus, 22c - 25d passim

«The murderous violence of the earthquake places us in front of our naked human condition and our responsibilities. Inadequacy of our knowledge, the insufficiency of our technologies ... A punctual point - all secular - is unavoidable: we must invest new energy in the connection between nature and the human community. Energies of knowledge, of technologies but also of solidarity not generally humanitarian, but politically qualified ".
G. E. RUSCONI, The Apocalypse and us, THE PRESS, 12/30/2004

"It gives me a certain tenderness to hear that the Earth's axis has moved. It makes me tenderness because it makes the Earth a more tangible and familiar object. It makes us feel more "home", a small planet with a depicting, incandescent heart, which while walking in the infinite spaces together with the Sun, turns around it, rotates on itself and twirls around its axis - a knitting needle inserted in the ball of yarn of the globe - which with its inclination of about twenty degrees gives us the day and the night and the changing of the seasons. It is not bad to remember every now and then that the Earth is large, but not infinite; who does not live of his own life in the middle of nowhere, but needs to always be in good company; which is not an automatic clockwork device, but that everything proceeds (almost) regularly only for a series of lucky combinations. The Earth is our home, infinitely less fragile than we are, but still fragile and defended only by the laws of physics and by the improbability of major catastrophysical ... That of the displacement of the Earth's axis is only one of the many scientific information-forecasts ... others say that this seismic event will soon be followed by others "in clusters" ... Altrefinine make catastrophic predictions on the time it will be necessary to restore certain ecosystems ... This happens ... because many things we ignore, especially in some branches of Earth sciences. .. La veritàè che, eccetto casi particolarmente fortunati, non siamo ancora in condizionedi prevedere i terremoti ei maremoti».
E. BONCINELLI, Dall’asse distorto ai grappoli sismici. Quando la scienzavuol parlare troppo, CORRIERE DELLA SERA, 2/1/2005

«Il paradosso è questo: i fattori che causano un maremoto...sono gli stessi che, ragionando in tempi lunghi, hanno reso il nostro Pianetaun luogo privilegiato del sistema solare, dove la vita ha potuto svilupparsied evolvere. Partiamo da considerazioni banali: gli ingredienti di uno tsunamio maremoto sono due: grandi masse d’acqua liquida, cioè l’oceano; e,sotto all’oceano, uno strato solido e rigido, la litosfera terrestre, cheperò si muove. La litosfera che giace sotto gli oceani varia di spessore trai 10 e gli 80 chilometri; in alcune zone particolari è squassataperiodicamente da improvvisi sussulti con spostamenti di masse che possonotrasmettere grande energia alle acque sovrastanti e causare il maremoto. Maperché questi sussulti, perché questa litosfera solida ma viva, vibrante,sempre in movimento...? E poi, perché questi grandi volumi di acqua liquidache coprono i due terzi della nostra Terra?».
E. BONATTI, Ma è l’oceano che ci dà vita, IL SOLE 24 ORE, 2/1/2005

«Il XX secolo ci ha insegnato che l’universo è un posto piùbizzarro di quanto si immagini... Né l’instabilità dell’atomo, né lacostanza della velocità della luce si accordano allo schema classico dellafisica newtoniana. Si è aperta una frattura fra ciò che è stato osservato equanto gli scienziati possono invece spiegare. A livello microscopico icambiamenti sono improvvisi e discontinui: gli elettroni saltano da un livelloenergetico all’altro senza passare per stadi intermedi; alle alte velocitànon valgono più le leggi di Newton: la relazione fra forza e accelerazione èmodificata, e così pure la massa, le dimensioni e perfino il tempo... Lasperanza che tutti i fenomeni naturali possano essere spiegati in termini dimateria, di forze fondamentali e di variazioni continue è più esile diquanto si creda, anche negli ambiti di ricerca più familiari. Ciò vale perbuona parte della fisica e per alcuni aspetti della chimica, scienza che solonel XIX secolo è divenuta rigorosamente quantitativa, mentre è molto menovero per la chimica organica e per la biochimica. Scienze della Terra, come lageologia o la meteorologia, in cui la complessità non può essere troppoidealizzata, si basano più su descrizioni e giudizi qualitativi specializzatiche su una vera teoria».
A. VOODCKOC – M. DAVIS, La teoria delle catastrofi, Milano, 1982

«Comprendere il mondo, agire sul mondo: fuor di dubbio talisono gli obiettivi della scienza. In prima istanza si potrebbe pensare chequesti due obiettivi siano indissolubilmente legati. Infatti, per agire, nonbisogna forse avere una buona intelligenza della situazione, e inversamente,l’azione stessa non è forse indispensabile per arrivare ad una buonacomprensione dei fenomeni?... Ma l’universo, nella sua immensità , e lanostra mente, nella sua debolezza sono lontani dall’offrirci sempre unaccordo così perfetto: non mancano gli esempi di situazioni che comprendiamoperfettamente, ma in cui ci si trova ugualmente in una completa incapacità diagire; si pensi ad un tizio la cui casa è invasa da un’inondazione e chedal tetto sui cui si è rifugiato vede l’onda che sale o lo sommerge.Inversamente ci sono situazioni in cui si può agire efficacemente senzacomprenderne i motivi... quando non possiamo agire non ci resta più che farebuon viso a cattivo gioco e accettare stoicamente il verdetto del destino...Il mondo brulica di situazioni sulle quali visibilmente possiamo intervenire,ma senza sapere troppo bene come si manifesterà l’effetto del nostrointervento».
R. THOM, Modelli matematici della morfogenesi, Torino, 1985

Europa e Stati Uniti d’America: due componenti fondamentalidella civiltà occidentale. Illustra gli elementi comuni e gli elementi didiversità fra le due realtà geopolitiche, ricercandone le ragioni neirispettivi percorsi storici.

L’Unesco ha dedicato il 2005 alla fisica e, con essa, adAlbert Einstein, che nel 1905, con la pubblicazione delle sue straordinariescoperte, rivoluzionò la nostra visione del mondo. La notorietà di Einsteinè legata in modo particolare alla teoria della relatività, ma anche alle suequalità morali e ai valori ai quali ispirò la sua azione: fede, nonviolenza, antifondamentalismo, rispetto per l’altro, egualitarismo,antidogmatismo.
Riflettendo sulla statura intellettuale e morale dello scienziato e sulla basedelle tue conoscenze ed esperienze personali, discuti del ruolo della fisica edelle altre scienze quali strumenti per la esplorazione e la comprensione delmondo e la realizzazione delle grandi trasformazioni tecnologiche del nostrotempo.

Maximum duration of the test: 6 hours.
È consentito soltanto l’uso del dizionario di Italiano.
Non è consentito lasciare l’Istituto prima che siano trascorse 3 ore dalladettatura del tema.